By: Richard C. Leone
Op-Ed piece from The New York Times
Critics of Social Security claim that the system is near collapse.
Privatizing the system, they, argue will give everybody better protection
in old age. But without a complete understanding of what Social Security
already provides to Americans, how can we know whether to junk it in favor
of something else?
First, despite what its critics claim, Social Security is not similar
to a savings or investment program whose purpose is to yield the biggest
return. Social Security is more like a disability and life insurance
policy that provides vital protections to virtually every member of our
society. Currently, seven million survivors of deceased workers and four
million disabled Americans receive income support.
The Social Security Administration calculates the value of the
disability insurance as the equivalent of a $203,000 policy in the private
sector; for a 27-year-old average-wage worker with two children, Social
Security provides the equivalent of a $295,000 life insurance policy. The
total value of these two policies nationally is about $12.1 trillion, more
than all the private life insurance currently in force.
Second, Social Security provides a lifetime retirement annuity whose
benefits rise with inflation. Many corporate pensions run out after 20
years, and most are not adjusted for inflation. While there is a lot of
loose talk about greedy geezers living luxuriously on the backs of their
impoverished children, the facts tell a quite different story. Without
Social Security, approximately half the elderly in America would fall
below the poverty line.
The notion that these basic protections would be unnecessary if we all
saved more money is simply false. The truth is that neither of these
protections is available in the private market at a price that the vast
majority of Americans can afford.
Social Security works because virtually all of us belong to it and pay
into it. Social Security, after all, does not consist of a bunch of piggy
banks with our names on them. Our pooled contributions insure that almost
every senior citizen receives a minimum income.
Although some of us need the protection more than others, all of us get
some benefits. It is the nature of such pooled plans that both the most
fortunate among us (the wealthy) and the least fortunate (those who die
young and without a family) get the least from the program.
It is a fallacy that everyone can do better than average if we take
control away from the Government. Averages exist because some of us do
worse and some of us better. In the brave new world of individual
accounts, each winner would be matched by a loser. The only way we can
insure that every citizen has a minimal retirement benefit is by requiring
that we all participate in the Social Security system.
Though the search continues, there is no free lunch. Advocates of
privatizing Social Security dangle the prospect of riches in front of
impressionable young workers, but hide from them its high costs and risks.
The privatization plans proposed, by two minority factions of the
Advisory Council on Social Security come with an enormous transition cost.
One plan would require increased taxes amounting to $6.5 trillion during
the next 72 years; the other would raise payroll taxes by 1.6 percent,
costing American families $13 billion each year.
Social Security has some minor problems, but faces no life and death
crisis. In fact, without any changes at all, the system will be able to
pay full benefits for the next 30 years and more than 70 percent of those
benefits for 75 years.
Moreover, the entire Advisory Council agreed that modest changes - such
as including state and local government workers in the system - could
eliminate a fair share of the projected gap between revenues and benefits.
Thus, as this debate continues, let us agree that we cannot all be
above average, and that when it comes to benefits we should compare apples
to apples. We shouldn't give up a critical universal insurance program for
no insurance at all. And we should not compare a guaranteed lifetime
inflation-adjusted annuity to a 401 (k) plan or brokerage account.
Global Action on Aging
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