International Labour Review Vol. 140, No. 1, 2001, cited World of Work, No. 39, June 2001, 
International Labour office.

“Pension reform in Central and Eastern Europe: Emerging issues and patterns”, by Elaine Fultz and Markus Ruck. The countries of central and eastern Europe are restructuring their pension systems against a general background of political, acute financial constrains and, often, lack of tripartite consensus. The authors identify a number of emerging patterns and common difficulties in the two main avenues of reform; namely, privatization and restructuring of the existing public schemes. 

“Job subsidies and cuts in employer’s social security contributions: The verdict of empirical evaluation studies”, by Ive Max. This article assembles findings from empirical studies of the effects of employment subsidies or reductions in employers’ social security contributions aimed at stimulating recruitment of long-term unemployed persons and other vulnerable groups. Most suggest the net employment effects are modest, mainly because of deadweight losses and substitution effects. The impact of subsidies on beneficiaries’ careers seems limited, and possibly negative, except if coupled with training and job counseling. 

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